Phenotype/Mutant Data In MaizeGDB
Mutant stocks and information have been key drivers of maize genetics cooperation, formalized in August 1932, when maize geneticists attending the 6th International Genetics Congress agreed to establish a cooperative enterprise to further the advance of maize genetics. See more.

Guide to Maize Mutant Phenotypes, courtesy of M Gerald Neuffer. This resource contains a history of maize mutagenesis, with high quality images and descriptions of mutant phenotypes selected from the Neuffer collection. All derive from EMS treatment of pollen (Coe, EH and Neuffer MG 1978 Maydica 23:21-28). These images are also accessible from MaizeGDB Allele (variation) records. 3000 stocks provided by MG Neuffer are included in the Core Collection of Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center (COOP).

Download all of Dr. Neuffer's high-resolution Maize Mutant images. These images may be reproduced provided credit is given to Dr. Neuffer.

Simple Phenotype Search

If the simple search doesn't fulfill your needs, you may want to try the phenotype browser (also found below), which allows you to specify additional criteria and browse through the phenotype records.

This search form allows you to just enter a name or partial name to quickly retrieve the desired phenotype along with variations and associated stock.
Use the wildcards '%' or '*' to find matches that contain your search term. '^' at the beginning of search term will find matches that start with that term. '$' at the end of search term will find matches that end with that term.

(see a sample phenotype query)

    (upper limit on results is 2,000 records)
Display records per page.

The example search above will find phenotypes that exhibit purple coloration. Other interesting phenotype searches include cob (cob-related phenotypes), cob diameter (cob diameter phenotypes), and shrunken kernel (directly go to the shrunken kernel phenotype).

This search can be executed on every page on the site by utilizing the form in the upper right corner. Choose "phenotypes" from the drop-down menu, enter your search term in the field, and hit return to find the phenotype you're looking for.

You can also browse through the phenotypes visually by viewing images associated with various phenotypes.

Advanced Search

This tool allows you to specify detailed search criteria, much like the other advanced searches, but the output looks slightly different; it is intended to allow you to dig more directly into the data rather than just visiting individual records.

Set Up Criteria

Check the boxes next to the fields you want to search; if you just want to find records that have any value for that attribute, check the box and leave the criteria alone. You can use % or * as a wildcard in the text fields.

only phenotypes matching
only phenotypes that have images of related mutants
only phenotypes that are related to this trait:
only phenotypes that are related to this body part:

    (upper limit on results is 2,000 records)

Search MG Neufer Mutant Descriptions

This search allows you to search for descriptions of mutant phenotypes. These descriptions were provided by MG Neuffer.

(see a sample query)

Phenotype Image Search

The site includes a large collection of phenotype images. You can search through the images below; clicking on the image will enlarge the image, and clicking on the links next to the image will provide details on that phenotype.

These images were provided by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press and
MG Neuffer.

This search form allows you to just enter a name or partial name to quickly retrieve the desired phenotype along with variations and associated stock.

(see a sample phenotype image query)

Search and Browse Phenotypes in Stock Collections

Stocks Distributed by the Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center

The Core COOP Collection

Browse catalog listing
Query data centers (Stock, Phenotype, Allele, Locus.)
Quick search (top right box above the menu bar)
Browse Images
EMS Inflorescence Project Mutants (S Hake) Sequence-tagged insertion mutants
UniformMu (D McCarty). View UniformMu tracks on the Genome Browser (B73_V2, B73_V3, W22_V2).
RescueMU (Walbot). Database with images from screenings for seed, seedling and adult stages
Ac/Ds/Ds-GFP (Dooner). Track on Genome Browser (B73_V2, B73_V3)

Stocks Distributed by Individual Projects

Sequence-tagged insertions Ac/Ds Brutnell & Vollbrecht. See track on Genome Browser (
B73_V2, B73_V3)
Mu (Barkan). See track on Genome Browser (B73_V3, B73_V4)
GFP-tagged proteins (JCVI) Track on Genome Browser (B73_V2, B73_V3)

Ontology Resources
Bioportal BioOntology
Gene Ontology
Ontology Lookup Service
Phenotypic Quality Ontology
Plant Ontology
Units Ontology

Phenotype RCN

Additional Phenotype links
Browse through the phenotypes visually
Find stocks with phenotype
Guide to Maize Mutant Phenotypes MG Neuffer and associates
Download all of Neuffer's high-resolution Maize Mutant images
Search for Trait Values

You may be interested in RescueMu mutant phenotypes from the Maize Gene Discovery Project.

You may be interested in EMS phenotypes from the Maize Inflorescence Architecture Project that were produced in defined inbred backgrounds by Gerry Neuffer.

We Want Your Images

If you have new images of phenotypes we would love to add them to the database! In return, we will provide clear and prominent accreditation for these images. Just use the feedback option on the far right of the menu and describe what images you would like us to take in!

Discussion of Phenotype Data for the General Public